Great article. I think the central question is, do stressors early in life function as a crucible, to build more resilient people who are more likely to succeed later in life? Or is it simply a predictor? The concept around "whatever doesn't kill me makes me stronger" would point toward the crucible theory.
I had a pretty challenging childhood. Don't talk about it much, but it's safe to say I'd be one of those kids in the article identified as doing well, despite being at risk. If my childhood had been nurturing and perfect, would I be as successful today? I doubt it, but we'll never know. My sister is also very successful, despite those same challenges.
The mindset component of that article is useful. If you're someone who believes they control their own fate, you're more likely to be resilient and thus successful. If you believe bad things just happen to you and there's nothing you can do about it, you're less likely to be resilient. I did find one thing a bit jarring - that people who recognize some things are external (there's stuff you can't control) are more resilient. That's counterintuitive. I would have thought people who accept responsibility for failure, even when some parts of that failure were outside their control, would have been better off.